As a result, the number of counties that have their own charter has grown tremendously to 3,033 in 2007. U.S. Census Bureau, Federal, State, and Local Governments, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau. Current Trends. Organized county governments are found in every state except Connecticut and Rhode Island – which have geographic regions called counties but without functioning county governments – and the District of Columbia. Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, 1993. This professionalization of government administration also had the highest percentage of voter approval. TYPE A GENERAL-LAW MUNICIPALITY. Or existing city and county areas may be too small for effective management of certain functions. Township governments are distinct from municipal governments because they are established to govern areas without a minimum population concentration. Copyright ©2020 National League of Cities. New York, NY: Praeger Scientific, 1983. Town government in its classic form is distinguished from township government, as the former is governed by an annual town meeting. Special purpose local governments include special districts (such as water and sewer districts) and school districts. This governing body of 5 to 15 members is typically elected by direct popular vote but may be appointed by other governmental officials. They have more than 500 000 voters and the metropolitan municipality co-ordinates the delivery of services to the whole area. Classification of Municipalities Missouri statutes classify municipalities on the basis of population and limit the form of govern-ment options of each classification. 2. Title 2, Organization of Municipal Government; Subtitle A, Types of Municipalities. The Constitution provides for three categories of municipality. This means that the mayoral executive council can function independently and have single metropolitan budgets, common property ratings and service-tariff systems, as well as single employer bodies. States also determine how much authority each type of government may exercise. Through their constitutions or laws, all states establish mechanisms by which local governments are created. Accessed March 17, 2011, http://www.census.gov/govs/. SUBCHAPTER A. Recent examinations of government structure indicate that these forms of government are less distinct that they once were. The Census Bureau designates two categories of local government, General Purpose and Special Purpose. Occuring in 34% of cities surveyed by International City/County Management Association (ICMA), this is the second most common form of government. For a city incorporated between 1925 and 1987, an order stating that the TYPES OF MUNICIPALITIES. This is the most common form of government. According to surveys by the International City/County Management Association (ICMA), this form of government has grown from 48% usage in 1996 to 55% usage in 2006. It is most popular in cities with populations over 10,000, mainly in the Southeast and Pacific coast areas. The forms of government are informed by the member database at the National League of Cities. Listed below is the form of government for the thirty most populous cities in the United States, based on the 2010 U.S. Census figures. Sec. U.S. Census Bureau, Governments Division, Lists and Structure of Governments, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau. Share. The following is a list of the types of local and supralocal territorial units in Quebec, including those used solely for statistical purposes, as defined by the Ministry of Municipal Affairs, Regions and Land Occupancy and compiled by the Institut de la statistique du Québec. TYPES OF MUNICIPALITIES § 5.001. Accessed March 17, 2011, http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/index.html. Counties, municipalities, towns and townships constitute the general purpose local governments. Municipality, in the United States, urban unit of local government. Determination of types of municipalities 2. This is due, in part, to the common practice of incorporating structural features from other forms into one’s current form. Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations. Dependent school systems are not counted as separate governments. Their functions range from street lighting to a large port authority with a large staff and project portfolio. Washington, DC: National League of Cities, May 1989. Types of municipalities in Quebec The following is a list of the types of local and supralocal territorial units in Quebec , including those used solely for statistical purposes, as defined by the Ministry of Municipal Affairs, Regions and Land Occupancy and compiled by the Institut de la statistique du Québec . Historically, counties were established without the consent of the voters, possessed no charter or legislative powers, performed no business or proprietary functions, and shared immunity with the state from suit. These differences may even exist within states. After World War II, the urban populations began to spread beyond city boundaries into suburbia, and county governments were increasingly called upon to provide services like child welfare and consumer protection. (2) National legislation must define the different types of municipality that may be established within each category. They also reduce the discretionary authority of local governments, fragment service provision, and may produce coordination problems. There are also limited portions of other states in which certain county areas lack a distinct county government. In the 2011 Local Government Elections, 4 277 wards were contested in 8 metropolitan councils, 44 districts and 226 local municipalities. Alberta is governed through 3 general types of municipalities, urban, rural and specialized. For detailed information and maps about particular municipalities, check the Municipal Profiles page. particularly essential if all municipalities are to achieve the new constitutional obligations.5 In order to enhance service delivery, almost all municipalities have wide-ranging options. TYPES OF MUNICIPALITIES IN GENERAL. For all their benefits, special districts have occasionally been created to evade constitutional tax and debt limits on local governments. The slides explain the different types of municipalities, their responsibilities to their citizens and career paths students can consider. Types of municipality 7 General 8 Types of category A municipalities 9 Types of category B municipalities 10 Types of category C municipalities 11 Determination of types CHAPTER 2 ESTABLISHMENT OF MUNICIPALITIES 12 Establishment 13 Guidelines for selecting types 14 Regulation of establishment 15 Review and rationalisation of by-laws Provincial Minister bound by Act 3. Refreshed: 2020-10-14 It is a basic principle of law of municipal corporations that such corporations possess and can legally exercise only … Accessed March 17, 2011, http://www.census.gov/govs/go/population_of_interest.html. These governments are typically charged with enforcing state laws inside its boundaries. To find out who to contact in your municipality, check the Municipal Officials Directory. A list of the 444 municipalities in Ontario – including status as an upper-, lower- or single-tier municipality and location. It is found mostly (but not exclusively) in older, larger cities, or in very small cities, and is most popular in the Mid-Atlantic and Midwest. Cities with variations in the mayor-council form of government are New York, New York; Houston, Texas;  Salt Lake City, Utah, and Minneapolis, Minnesota. Topics similar to or like Types of municipalities in Quebec. Some New England townships govern schools, and Midwestern townships typically perform limited government functions. However, the only reliable method for determining the difference is to examine the city’s articles or order of incorporation. 5.001. Washington, D.C.: International City/County Management Association, 2008. Historically, towns and cities were distinguished by their distinct methods of deliberation. Copyright ©2020 National League of Cities. For example, all qualified citizens in a town deliberate and vote together, while cities have representatives who vote. Buffalo City Metropolitan, City of Cape Town Metropolitan, City of Ekurhuleni Metropolitan, City of Johannesburg Metropolitan, City of Tshwane Metropolitan, eThekwini Metropolitan, Mangaung Metropolitan, Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan, Among other proposed changes, 50% or more respondents of ICMA’s 2006 survey reported voter approval to increase or decrease the number of council members, to modify the method of electing the mayor and to decrease the power or authority of the mayor. These entities operate similar to a city in that they are accountable for the service they provide, and may exercise the powers of eminent domain and taxation, except in Virginia. A municipality is a political subdivision of a state within which a municipal corporation has been established to provide general local government for a specific population concentration in a defined area. Special districts, as defined by the U.S. Census, are local entities “authorized by state law to provide only one or a limited number of designated functions, and with sufficient administrative and fiscal autonomy to qualify as separate governments; known by a variety of titles, including districts, authorities, boards, and commissions.” These districts are local governing units that vary widely in authority, function, and structure. More than 80 percent of these independent school systems are governed by a nonpartisan elected board called a school board, board of trustees, board of education, or school committee. Sec. Early state constitutions originally created counties to serve as the administrative arms of state government, performing state-mandated duties, including property assessment and record keeping. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Public Administration, 1980. This involves peacekeeping, taxation, road and bridge repair, marriage and death records and property deeds. Frederickson, H. George,  Curtis Wood, and Brett Logan. Silvestri, John H. and Mark S. Nelson, “McQuillin Municipal Corporation, Third rev. ed.”The Law of Municipal Corporations. A municipality is. Districts are further divided into local municipalities, category B. A political unit, such as a city, town, or village, incorporated for local self-government. This form of government is found in fewer than 1% of cities, almost exclusively in small, New England municipalities, such as Bowdoin, Maine and Lexington, Massachusetts. The United States has one of the greatest complexity of local government laws in the world. chief administration officer/city manager, City council oversees the general administration, makes policy, sets budget, Council appoints a professional city manager to carry out day-to-day administrative operations, Often the mayor is chosen from among the council on a rotating basis, Mayor is elected separately from the council, is often full-time and paid, with significant administrative and budgetary authority, Council is elected and maintains legislative powers, Some cities appoint a professional manager who maintains limited administrative authority, Voters elect individual commissioners to a small governing board, Each commissioner is responsible for one specific aspect, such as fire, police, public works, health, finance, One commissioner is designated as chairman or mayor, who presides over meetings, The commission has both legislative and executive functions, All voters meet to decide basic policy and elect officials to carry out those policies, Voters select a large number of citizens to represent them at town meetings, where only they can vote, Each town meeting must be announced with a warrant that provides the date, time and location of the meeting and specifies the items to be discussed, The selectmen are responsible for implementing policy. National Academy of Public Administration, Metropolitan Governance: A Handbook for Local Government Study Commissions. District municipalities, category C, are for wider areas outside the cities, like counties in the US and UK. Some local governments that cannot finance public improvements without increasing taxes will rely on special districts because special districts have several sources of revenue, and some have more than one source. Krane, Dale, Platon Rigos, & Melvin B. Hill, Jr. Home Rule in America: A Fifty-State Handbook. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2001. They may have the authority to levy property taxes, impose service charges, accept grants, share taxes with other areas, or rely on other special assessments or taxes. A municipality may be New England, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania townships, for example, enjoy broad authority and perform functions similar to municipalities. States also determine how much authority each type of government may e… The statutes provide that a community may incorporate as a city of the third class, fourth class or village … (3) National legislation must— (a) establish the criteria for determining when an area should have a single category A municipality or when it should have municipalities of … Otherwise, townships are commonly governed by an elected board of three to five part-time trustees and rely almost exclusively on property taxes for revenue. Townships, if similar to municipalities, have a municipal form of government. The commission form of city government is the oldest form of government in the U.S., but exists today in less than 1% of cities. It typically occurs in cities with populations below 100,000, such as Sunrise, Florida and Fairview, Tennessee. Because of this variability, the special districts may operate in very different intergovernmental political and fiscal frameworks. These regional structures are independent legal entities operating at the substate level with a governing board whose members represent the region rather than the member municipalities. A municipality is a Type A general-law municipality if it: (1) has incorporated as a Type A general-law municipality under Subchapter A of Chapter 6 and has not acted to … TYPES OF MUNICIPALITIES IN GENERAL SUBCHAPTER A. The largest metropolitan areas are governed by metropolitan municipalities, while the rest of the country is divided into district municipalities, each of which consists of several local municipalities. There are 278 municipalities in South Africa, comprising eight metropolitan, 44 district and 226 local municipalities. Geographically, municipalities lie within counties, although they may cross county boundaries. Today, the distinction between towns and cities, and similarly with the other nomenclature, generally is one of population size. Local Authority & Intergovernmental Relations, http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/index.html, http://www.census.gov/govs/go/population_of_interest.html. These entities are instead classified as agencies of the local, county, or state government and are accordingly paid for, in part or in whole, by taxes. National League of Cities. Choices of the Citizenry: Forms of Municipal Government. However, most are created because state statutes authorize citizens in a particular geographic area who need or desire local services to form a local unit of government. Download the guide and the PowerPoint presentation . Types of municipalities; There are three different types of municipalities in South Africa: Metropolitan municipalities [Category A]: Metropolitan municipalities exist in the six biggest cities in South Africa. Subchapter A of Chapter 6 and has not acted to change to another. The most common mixing occurs across the two most prevalent forms, mayor-council and the council-manager. Among all cities proposing a change to their structure of government, the most common proposal was to add the position of chief administration officer/city manager. “How American City Governments Have Changed: The Evolution of the Model City Charter” National Civic Review 90(1) (2001). Counties are known as boroughs in Alaska and parishes in Louisiana. TYPES OF MUNICIPALITIES. Although the town meeting form of government is generally viewed as the purest form of democracy, because it allows all eligible voters a voice in local policy decisions, it is practiced in only 5% of municipalities. Termed mayoral control, this is the case in cities including Boston, Chicago, New York City, and Washington, D.C. As metropolitan areas encompass multiple counties and cities, or straddle state lines, governance becomes more complex. Through their constitutions or laws, all states establish mechanisms by which local governments are created. Recent examinations of government structure indicate that these forms of government are less distinct that they once were. Local government in South Africa consists of municipalities of various types. All special districts are governed by a board, but their governance structures vary; some boards may be elected by the public while the majority are appointed by the states, counties, municipalities, or townships that have joined to form the special district. Some examples are Phoenix, Arizona; Topeka, Kansas; San Antonio, Texas, and Rockville, Maryland. Types of Government in New Jersey All 565 municipalities in New Jersey, regardless of their form of government, can be classified as belonging to one of five types of municipal government: 1) Borough 2) Township 3) City 4) Town 5) Village. The municipalities of South Africa are divided into three categories: The Metropolitan Municipality, Local Municipalities and District Municipalities. Most prominent, however, is the need to assess and plan strategically for the most appropriate and effective forms of service In some cases, the state legislature may allow the mayor and city council to dissolve the school board in favor of appointing one themselves. Generally, counties cover the largest area. This mixing is also attributed to local responses to socioeconomic, demographic, and political changes. Town meeting government is found in Marblehead, Massachusetts. Moulder, Evelina. This annexure provides a brief description for each grant in schedules of the Division of Revenue Bill. The different types of municipalities determined and that may be established in the Province are those set out in the Schedule. Municipalities. Svara, James H. “The Shifting Boundary Between Elected Officials and City Managers in Large Council-Manager Cities”  Public Administration Review 59(1) (January-February 1999). The public school systems in the United States are either defined as independent or dependent systems. TYPE A GENERAL-LAW MUNICIPALITY. While the board may share power with a larger institution, such as the local department of education, it is responsible for setting education policy and appointing a professional superintendent to manage school administration. Metropolitans Metros Districts Locals. U.S. Census Bureau, State and County Quick Facts, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau. a Type A general-law municipality if it: (1) has incorporated as a Type A general-law municipality under. U.S. The four types of local governments are counties, townships, special districts and municipalities. Since the boundary reform at the time of the municipal election of 3 August 2016 there are eight metropolitan municipalities, 44 district municipalities and 205 local municipalities. “The Adapted American City: A Study in Institutional Dynamics.”  Urban Affairs Review36(6) (July 2001). SUBCHAPTER A. 1(1.01-3A.26), 1999. As populations grew and suburbs formed across the nation post-World War I, the role of local government was strengthened. Terms cognate with "municipality", mostly referring to territory or political structure, are Spanish municipio (Spain) and municipalidad (Chile), and Catalan municipi. Municipalities are instruments of government subject at all times to the control of the legislature with respect to their duration, powers, rights, and property[ii]. Click on the map to explore municipalities by province, or search for any municipality, town, person, etc. All Rights Reserved. “Municipal Form of Government: Trends in Structure, Responsibility, and Composition.” In The Municipal Year Book 2008. Some are created by direct state action – through a charter, for example. using the search function. Turkey has three types of local governments: special provincial administrations, municipalities and villages. County governments began to receive greater autonomy from the states, generate increasing revenues, and accept stronger political accountability. In general, counties have more mandates, less discretionary funds, and are more vulnerable to state budgetary action. 5.001. ties 1. Barnes, William R. “Forms and Structure of Municipal Government in the United States.” Presentation to the Convention of Scottish Local Authorities, Edinburgh, Scotland, October 24, 1991. COVID-19: Get the latest updates , take a self-assessment or learn about the COVID Alert exposure-notification app . “City Government Structures: an Attempt at Classification.” State and Local Government Review, 34(2) (Spring 2002). Structures Act (No 117 of 1998) which sets out the categories and types of municipalities and provides for elections and other matters. Priorities and service delivery responsibilities vary considerably from among counties, as does their size and number. Municipalities may be established in certain categories. Independent school systems are also known as school districts, or local entities providing public school for which state law determines they have sufficient administration and fiscal autonomy to qualify as separate (or special purpose) governments. Frederickson, H. George, and Gary Alan Johnson. TYPE A GENERAL-LAW MUNICIPALITY. Or explore by municipality type. Special districts also raise the issue of local government accountability, as the districts are governed by appointees, only a few of whom may be local elected officials. Media in category "Municipalities" The following 15 files are in this category, out of 15 total. All municipalities generally have similar powers and perform similar functions. DeSantis,Victor S. and Tari Renner. While municipal systems among many states are similar in policy, method, and practice, there are numerous variations, exceptions, and differences in form and function. However, most are created because state statutes authorize citizens in a particular geographic area who need or desire local services to form a local unit of government. All Rights Reserved. These types of municipalities are divided into wards and have exclusive municipal executive and legislative authority in their areas. For example, proximity to a watershed or river basin may better suggest the area of service than political boundary lines, necessitating a new service provider. Also known as ad hoc governments because they are created to fill in the cracks of the existing government, special districts can overcome jurisdictional, legal, and financial inadequacies of existing governments. Metropolitan municipalities – defined as category A – govern the major city regions. Differences in the types of cities include the manner of filling vacancies and the length of the term of an alderman appointed to fill a vacancy. Svara, James H. Two Decades of Continuity and Change in American City Councils. Washignton, D.C.: National League of Cities, September 2003. If you have any questions, contact the Ministry of Government Relations at 306-787-2740. Types of municipalities in Quebec. The need for coordination and cooperation among the local governments challenges public policymaking authority and service provision leading to the development of cross-jurisdictional organizations called regional government, regional councils of local government, and regional multi-purpose or single purpose authorities. This form of government is found in fewer than 1% of cities, almost exclusively in small, New England municipalities, such as Bowdoin, Maine and Lexington, Massachusetts. Some are created by direct state action - through a charter, for example. Zimmerman, Joseph F. State-Local Relations: A Partnership Approach. Washington, D.C.: U.S. To simplify this description, the classifications developed by the U.S. Census Bureau will be followed. State Laws Governing Local Government Structure and Administration. Each of these has their own unique area over which they reside and need to co-ordinate the services for their designated areas. 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